croissant, croissants, dough, viennoiserie, philip, philipfriend, philip friend, pastry, baking, cooking, food, foodie, breakfast, butter, chocolate

A croissant is one of the greatest things both to bake and to eat. A crisp outer shell that rains flakes as you bite into it, revealing an open honeycombed interior structure with a buttery flavour and a lovely, almost nutty aroma. A joy! 

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Sections in this post

  • Introduction
  • About the recipe
  • The flour and the butter
  • A recipe for croissant dough
  • How to shape the dough for croissants and pains au chocolat
  • Freezing the shaped dough
  • Top tips
  • Variations
  • A rough timescale for making croissants
  • Sourdough croissants
  • Quicker croissants


There really is something quite magical when you eat a freshly made croissant, pain au chocolat or savoury variation.

I have been fascinated by laminated doughs since I was a young boy and making croissants is right up there in my top baking joys.

I know you can buy decent croissants at good bakeries but the flavour of a home-made croissant, even if not they do not turn out perfectly (and there will always something to improve upon!), is in another league entirely.

The photos in this tutorial are of different batches I have made. I am not claiming these to be perfect (and I am learning all the time!), but in terms of flavour, flakiness and lightness, I am very happy with these!

Croissants have a reputation for being difficult to make, and while they are certainly not the easiest bake in the world, they are incredibly rewarding to make.

It might take a few goes to feel more comfortable with the process, but that is part of the joy of baking.

For the best results, you need to set aside just over a day from start to finish. But don’t be put off, as there is actually not much hands-on work: most of the time is simply waiting around while the dough chills. And there is a lot of chilling that needs to be done to give excellent croissants.

The great news is there is no urgency with the timings and you can get on with other things while the dough rests in the fridgem or freezer.

The recipe below

I have tried literally dozens of recipes over the years in my quest to make what for me is an excellent croissant, with a variety of slightly differing approaches across those recipes.

The recipe below takes ideas from many recipes I have worked through and gives the best results for me in terms of the proportions of ingredients and the stages.

While I like to make slight changes from time to time, the version below for croissants is always the most up-to-date version and will gives croissants that work very well indeed.

I have also given a recipe for quicker croissants, which is a less daunting recipe to try and gives excellent results. This recipe is at the bottom of this post.

The flour and the butter

Using the right flour and butter is an important part of making good croissants:

The flour

While I was getting used to the technique for making croissants, I would use standard plain flour. Being lower in gluten (protein), it gave a dough that was much easier to roll out. The downside was it was harder to get as open an interior to the baked croissants as I would have liked.

Increasing the gluten content by using a strong plain flour gives a dough that is more stable while baking: the layers are less likely to collapse in the oven, so you get a more open interior.

Shipton Mill T55 flour is my flour of choice, but I have had great results with supermarket strong plain flours that are between 11 and 12% protein.

The butter

A good quality butter with a high fat content is best for croissants. Quite a few of the higher-end butters have about 82% fat content and these are ideal. I find I get great results using either Lurpak or President. If you can find one with higher than 82%, grab it!

Most of the butter gets rolled into the dough through a series of turns, described in the recipe, so you end up with many very thin layers alternating between dough and butter. As the croissants bake, you get clearly defined, crisp layers which, thanks to the yeast and time for the shaped dough to rise, expand to give a very light, airy pastry.

Spices and other flavours

The addition of ground ginger and/or cocoa powder to the flour for a twist on pains au chocolat works well: 3 or 4 teaspoons of ginger gives a subtle flavour throughout the dough; 50g cocoa powder will give enough chocolate flavour while not adversely affecting the dough’s texture.

If going for savoury bakes, I might mix some ground spices such as turmeric or mustard powder with the flour, depending on the filling.

I strongly recommend reading the tips section below the recipe before making up the dough.

Recipe for croissant dough (makes approx. 10 large croissants or 18 pains au chocolat)

Initial dough:

  • 500g strong white plain flour (not “very strong” flour)
  • 250-270ml cold water
  • 60g caster sugar
  • 10g fine sea salt
  • 14g easy-blend (“instant“) yeast
  • 50g very soft unsalted butter

To laminate the dough:

  • 300g unsalted butter, at coolish room temperature initially

To glaze:

  • 1 small egg, beaten with a little water

(1) Mix the initial dough ingredients together to make a fairly firm dough, adding a little more water if needed to help it all come together. I find it easier using my hands and scrunching the mixture with my fingers to incorporate everything: add a little more water if needed. Knead gently for couple of minutes or so on a lightly floured surface: just enough to bring it together to form a fairly smooth ball. Alternatively, do all this stage in a food mixer with the dough hook or paddle attachment using a medium-low speed just until it comes together.

NB: you don’t want to develop the gluten too much here;  the rolling out of the dough later will develop the gluten and give structure to the final croissants

(2) Flatten the dough into a rough rectangle. Wrap it well in clingfilm and pop the dough on a flat surface such as a small baking tray. Pop this inside a plastic bag and refrigerate overnight.

NB: the overnight chilling not only chills the dough right down, it allows the yeast to activate just enough to allow very slow fermentation – and this is where a lot of the flavour comes from.

(3) Shape the butter into a thin square that is about 20cm by 20cm by bashing it lightly with a rolling pin between two sheets of baking parchment. Chill the butter until you are ready to encase it in the dough.

NB: this can be done in advance, and I often make up several squares of butter and pop them in the freezer to use when I want to make croissants: in which case, I just defrost them before using.

(4) Pat down the chilled dough to deflate it, as it will have risen a little overnight and wrap it back up and put it in the freezer for about 15 minutes to cool down even further (this prevents the yeast from activating, which would make the dough harder to roll out). Meanwhile, remove the butter from the fridge to soften up just enough to be flexible and not at all brittle.

NB: In order to get the dough and the butter at as similar a texture as possible (the ideal set-up), 15 minutes in the freezer is usually enough for the dough to chill right down and for the butter to soften up at room temperature just enough to be pliable.

To test the butter is at the right texture, bend a corner over: if it snaps, it is too firm, in which case leave it at room temperature just until it can bend easily without snapping.

(5) Roll out the dough on a lightly floured surface to a rectangle that is just wider than the butter square and just over twice as long. It should roll out very easily given the coldness of the dough: don’t worry if it is not perfectly smooth at this stage.

(6) Place the butter near the bottom of the dough and bring the rest of the dough over the butter, sealing gently and trying not to trap air bubbles.

Straighten the edges – I find pressing the flat surface of a ruler against the edges works best. Brush off the excess flour.

(7) Roll out the dough to a long, narrow rectangle – about 20cm wide and 60-65cm long. The key thing is the thickness, which shouldn’t be much more than 5mm thick.

NB: try to keep the dough as rectangular as possible. If at any stage you end up with a shape that is not quite rectangular, for example more curved at the bottom or top edges, simply trim with a sharp knife! Seriously, you won’t miss them. Although I sometimes like to let these prove and then bake them for buttery tasters!

The envelope turns (creating the layers)

(8) Use a sharp knife to trim the short edge nearest to you, so you can see the butter inside. Fold the bottom third of the dough up:

Now bring the top third of the dough over this, still keeping the edges as straight as possible.

This is one envelope turn completed. You will have three layers of dough (with the butter sheet very thinly in between each layer):

NB: the trimming of the edge of the dough nearest to you ensures there are no closed dough bits inside. This helps achieve the lightest interiors when baked.

(9) Wrap the dough in cling film and put in the coldest part of the fridge for about an hour to rest.

NB: as well as chilling the dough, this relaxes the gluten, making the subsequent rolling out easier.

(10) Remove the dough from the fridge and leave the dough out of the fridge for 5-10 minutes or so: just enough to allow the butter in the dough to soften up a little so that when you roll it again it will roll out without the butter breaking.

(11) Rotate the dough 90° so the visible three layers are on the left and the right and repeat steps 7 to 10 twice more to give two more turns, chilling between turns. Make sure you rest the dough in the fridge for about an hour each time.

You have now done the three turns.

(12) After the third and final turn, wrap the dough with clingfilm and leave the dough to rest in the fridge for a few hours: I find about 4 hours is ideal. It won’t rise too much as the dough will be very cold. Alternatively, once it has had this final, wrap it in clingfilm, place inside a plastic bag and freeze it (on a flat tray) for later use.

NB: the dough benefits hugely from this final resting as you get a dough that rolls out more easily for the final time for the cutting and shaping.

(13) Remove the dough from the fridge and leave it on the lightly floured work surface for about 5 minutes to allow the butter in the dough to soften slightly, ensuring it won’t break apart when you roll it. Have the dough with the closed/rounded edge away from you, so the edges nearest to you and on the left and the right show the 3 layers of dough when you last folded it.

NB: this is the same way round the dough was when you finished the last turn. I find it is easier having it this way round when you start to roll it out a final time.

NB: If you had frozen the dough after its final turn, place it in the fridge overnight until it has fully defrosted.

(14) Roll out the dough to a long narrow rectangle: about 75cm long and 24cm wide. Leave for a minute or so before cutting so that the dough relaxes a bit and doesn’t shrink too much when you cut.

NB: go gently here when rolling out, being patient until you have rolled it out enough. You can rotate the dough 180° every now and turn the dough over so what was the top surface is now on the bottom. Fold up and chill for about 15 minutes if it resists, before upfolding and carrying on.

(15) Trim the edges with a sharp knife, cut into triangles (for croissants) or rectangles (for pains au chocolat), stretch gently to make them longer and shape: see the “shaping the dough” section below.

For large croissants, cut out triangles with base about 12cm and height 24cm; for pains au chocolate cut out rectangles about 8cm by 12cm.


NB: don’t be too obsessed with the shaping or the measurement, as the gentle stretching of the dough will give you larger triangle and rectangles.

For croissants you should be able to get aiming for at least 5 “steps”, possibly 7 “steps” if you go for a wider base – as in the photos above.

(16) Put the shaped dough well spaced out on baking trays lined with a double layer of greaseproof paper. Brush the egg-wash lightly over the shaped dough.

(17) Cover and leave at cool-ish room temperature until puffy and increase by about half their original size – this can several hours depending on the room temperature, just let the yeast wake up fully and work its magic. You should be able to see the very thin layers of butter in the dough once proved.

NB: I pop the trays into a large bin liner, with a tin or mug inside to keep the plastic from touching the dough. You can prove them in a slightly warm room, just make sure it is not too warm – otherwise the butter can melt.

(18) Brush the risen dough again with egg-wash, going gently as the dough will be quite delicate now it has risen, and put the trays in an oven pre-heated to 175°C (fan). Bake for about 20 minutes: they should be a golden brown and feel light when you lift one up. Bake for a further 5 minutes or so if they do not feel light, covering with foil if they are looking too dark.

NB: keep an eye on them as they bake: after about 15 minutes you might want to rotate the pans depending on your oven. The pastries will already show flaky layers, giving a teaser as to what is to come: arguably the most exciting part of the entire process!

Shaping the dough for croissants or pains au chocolat

While the dough is easy to shape, it is worth doing a quick trial by using some left-over pastry or even a quick dough made up of flour and water, so that when you do it for real, there is a familiarity about it.

Roll out the rested dough as in Step 14 of the recipe above.

Don’t be heavy-handed with the rolling out – it will get there with a little patience. Be prepared to chill it if it feels too soft, or leave on the work surface for 10-15 minutes before carrying on.

NB: if you cannot get the dough beyond 70cm long, don’t worry about it: go for what you can (60cm is usually quite easy) and go from there. The stretching of the individual cut-outs of dough will compensate somewhat for this.

Shaping croissants

  • Cut out triangles from the dough, each with about 12cm base and 24cm height. Brush off any excess flour off the top and underneath. You can cut out wider/longer triangles if you prefer, which will give you more “steps” on top.
  • Take a triangle and use cool hands to elongate it a little. I sometimes also stretch out the base corners to give wider triangles.
  • At the base of each triangle make a cut going about 1cm inwards, and gently pull apart the dough either side of the cut to widen the base a little. They always remind me of little Eiffel Towers!
  • Roll up the triangles, gently stretching the tip as you go. Place onto baking sheets with the tip underneath and lightly pat down.
  • Repeat for the other triangles.

NB: as an alternative shaping, I sometimes fold the base of the triangles inwards to the centre of the base and then roll up, Buchon-bakery-style, as in the images below:

shaping pains au chocolat

  • Cut the rolled out dough into small rectangles (each about 8cm by 12cm).
  • Take a rectangle of dough and gently stretch it with cold fingers so it is a few centimetres longer.
  • Place a chocolate baton/chocolate chips/chunks of chocolate width-ways close to the bottom of each rectangle and roll the bottom of the dough up over it. You can have the chocolate going right to the sides or go for the hidden chocolate effect!
  • Place more chocolate at the “join” and roll all the way to the end. If the dough is on the thick side and you can’t quite get two lots of chocolate in there, pop a little more chocolate with the first lot.
  • Place on baking trays with the seam face down and gently pat down each one.

NB: you can slightly elongate these rectangles with the rolling pin or your fingers if you need to.

Freezing the shaped dough

You can freeze some of the shaped dough, prior to letting them prove; simply place them on a baking tray, pop them inside a large plastic bag and put in the freezer until firm.

Once firm, wrap them in greaseproof paper and return to the freezer until you want to use them.

When you want to use them, simply take what you want out of the freezer the night before – the greaseproof helps you separate them. Place them onto baking trays lined with greaseproof, place the tray inside a large plastic bag or bin liner and leave to defrost and prove/rise overnight at room temperature.

You then brush them with beaten egg and bake them for delicious morning pastries!

Top tips

From time to time I make a batch that is not quite right, often when not focusing enough or if I am being a touch heavy-handed.

While it might take a few goes at making croissants to get a real feel for them, these tips should help achieve excellent results:

Try to avoid making a laminated dough on a hot day in a warm kitchen

A warm kitchen makes croissant making even more of a challenge. If you are going to, though, you need to work quickly, with more frequent chilling, to prevent butter oozing out as the dough gets rolled out.

Dough & butter: texture is crucial!

The dough and the butter should be as close as possible to each other in texture to help with the rolling out and to create the defined layers you want. The trick is to aim for a very cold dough and cool, but pliable butter for the lamination.

  • If the dough feels too soft at any stage during the turns, freeze it for 10-15 minutes and the dough will firm up enough without freezing the butter solid. If you need to loosely fold the dough in half to get it into the freezer, that is absolutely fine. Just place it on a flat surface such as a small baking tray and cover it in clingfilm or a plastic bag.
  • If the butter in the dough feels too hard and either starts to splinter or is not rolling out easily, leave the dough on the work top for 15-20 minutes or so, depending on the temperature of the room. You want to soften it just enough to enable it to roll out but again, not too soft.
Chill the dough to help it roll out!

Even in mid-roll, roll it up loosely and pop it in the freezer as in the tip above. The dough will get there!

Brush any excess flour off the surface of the dough

Too much flour trapped between the layers will affect the lamination and give a heavier, doughier interior rather than a light, open structure. Use a pastry brush or clean paint brush to flick the surplus flour away each time you have rolled out and as you fold up the dough for the turns.

Rest the dough in the fridge (and even the freezer) between turns

This makes it much easier to roll out and gives a a much better structure of the baked croissants. I go for about for an hour after every turn.

I have also had great results between turn, not least in terms of ease of rolling out, by freezing the dough for 10-15 minutes before transferring to the fridge for about 45 minutes before the next turn. This blast of cold stops the yeast from activating at this stage, making the subsequent rolling out easier.

Avoid the temptation to give the dough extra turns

You might try this in the hope of creating more layers, but you risk compacting the layers already built up in the dough and this can result in a doughy, non-flaky finished bake – think buttery bread rolls!

I find that 3 standard “envelope” turns, gives perfect enough results for my tastes, but if you are eager to get more layers, start with a book turn (see photos below, taken before my new worktops!), and then go for two envelope turns:

Line the baking trays well

I always go for a double thickness of greaseproof paper, as these pastries can be prone to getting overly dark on their bases if baked straight on the tray.

Keep an eye on the proving of the shaped dough

Leave the shaped dough at coolish room temperature to prove. If it is too warm, the butter can melt. Check them after a couple of hours: you want them puffy and with a slight wobble, and you should be able to see the layers of butter in there: this is always an exciting thing to see.

Don’t over-prove as the croissants could collapse in the oven. After a few hours keep an eye on them: if you see any tearing then it’s a signal the dough is over-proving, so get them in the oven.

Don’t under-bake

Croissants start to brown up fairly quickly and it is easy to take them out thinking they are ready, only to find them collapsed and doughy inside! You can afford to go a darker golden brown with croissants and pains au chocolat.

To test they are ready: the tops should be firm and crispy and they should lift easily off the tray, feeling very light.

A rough timescale for making croissants:

When I make croissants traditionally, which is more a weekend affair for me, I often stick to a timescale similar to the one given below. These timings are very loose guidelines.

I usually make these while getting on with other things, as there is no great urgency.

  • Day one – late evening: make up the initial dough (it takes moments!)   and refrigerate overnight. Make the butter block and refrigerate overnight.
  • Day two – 8am: encase the butter block in the dough, roll out and do the first turn. Refrigerate.
  • Day two – 9.30am: do the second turn and refrigerate.
  • Day two – 11am: do the third turn and refrigerate the laminated dough for about 4 hours*.
  • Day two – 3pm: roll out the dough, shape* and leave to prove/rise for 2-3 hours.
  • Day two – 6pm: bake!

* or freeze the dough at either of these stages for using at a later stage. If freezing immediately after shaping, remove from the freezer the night before, place the frozen dough on baking trays, cover and leave to defrost and then prove overnight ready for baking the next morning.


One of my favourite sweet variations is cherry & kirsch pains au chocolat: incredibly indulgent and divine to eat slightly warm.

My favourite savoury variations are my croissant-based “pizza” (topped with slow-roasted onions, anchovies and olives) and my croissage rolls (essentially sausage rolls made using croissant dough rather than puff pastry).

For the trimmings, for either a standard croissant dough or a flavoured dough, rather than re-roll them (which never gives a great, flaky result) I often spread mustard on them as they are, sprinkle over a bit of cheese, and slice into smallish chunks before proving and then baking – moreish rustic nibbles!

Sourdough croissants:

A sourdough croissant has an even crisper exterior and has even more depth of flavour that a croissant made with commercial yeast.

My recipe for sourdough croissants is here.

Quicker croissants:

You can incorporate the butter grated from a frozen block of butter, which gives a dough that takes about 20 minutes to make up (before it needs to rest, get shaped and prove).

This is certainly an easier method and it is much quicker to get the dough laminated, taking no more than half an hour. While the dough still benefits from overnight resting prior to shaping, it works very well with just a few hours rest in the fridge before shaping.

The result is a flaky croissant with a nice structure, although it does not have quite the same level of honeycombed interior as you get with the traditional method. But it does give a very nice croissant indeed!

My recipe for these quicker croissants is here.


Author: Philip

Finalist on Britain’s Best Home Cook (BBC Television 2018). Published recipe writer with a love of growing fruit & veg, cooking & eating.

15 thoughts on “Croissants”

  1. The croissants are beautiful. Croissants are probably my favorite thing in the world to eat. It is pretty rare that I do eat them but would love to try and make them. Maybe on a cool day this fall- I’m bookmarking this recipe!


  2. Nice post well done. You can really see how your laminating technique has gotten better from 2010 to 2012 to 2013 in the finished product. Laminating is for sure an art that takes time to perfect. Check out our Kouign Amann. It took me 9 months of doing it 6 days a week to get to that point and you really have to push yourself to be better every day.


  3. At last a recipe for croissants that works properly for me. I followed your advice to the letter and got amazing results. I agree with you about the resting. the more the better for sure.


  4. I have made croissants for years but have usually suffered with doughy rather than flaky croissants so I tried these out. First time round I didn’t rest them overnight and although they flaked ok they were not as light inside but they tasted great. Second time I did rest them overnight and they were perfect. Thank you.


  5. Made these this weekend and they turned out great. I was a little concerned though when I saw that some of the butter was leaking out, even though I’d kept them in the fridge after proofing. (Had to open all the windows in the kitchen as it was getting smoky, I’m sure the neighbours thought I was burning something, little did they know it was only butter!). Got the dimensions slightly wrong on the pain au Chocolat, the dough seemed quite small, but the end result is what counts and they are very tasty. Am going to have to stock up on uncooked croissants for the summer, when it is definitely too hot, here in Spain!

    Liked by 1 person

  6. Hi there, just want to say thank you for this post; it’s really helped me to improve my croissants I notice you’ve changed your recipe to use all strong flour instead of a mix as well as a few other tweaks. Could you explain what the benefits of the new recipe are?


    1. Hi, yes I just switched to strong flour but purely to give a slightly firmer interior. But to be honest there is not a lot in it. The normal plain flour works excellently though and to be honest I vary between a mix and between all strong.

      I also now roll out a little less lengthways before: purely for less chance for me to over-do the rolling and risk squashing some of the layers. You still get excellent flakes and a nice honeycombed structure.

      I am glad you have found the recipe and tips useful.


  7. if you are in a hot place, like Mumbai, what do you do for the final proving? Can you prove inside a fridge albeit longer. I don’t want the butter to melt while proving.


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